This is Lawrence Summers’ internal memo in December 12, 1991 that was leaked to the environmental community in February of 1992. Summers was the chief economist of the World Bank at the time. This memo was highly controversial: it suggests that dumping toxic waste in developing and lower-wage countries is efficient and economically beneficial. After the leak, Summers’ employee Lant Pritchett claimed authorship of the memo and passed it off as entirely sarcastic.

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