This paper (Ghosh, M. K., Nguyen, V., Muller, H. K., & Walker, A. M. (2016)) explores a new mechanism through which the mother can protect its child. Basically, the mother educates the infant’s immune system and helps the child fight pathogens to which the mother has been exposed; the study used pups and rats to test this hypothesis. The paper uses “multiple murine foster-nursing protocols” to show that there is “active immunity” in addition to “passive immunity”. Finally, this is relevant to researchers hoping to create a preventative measure against diseases such as tuberculosis or HIV.